Áruházláncok főbb típusai
Chain stores (also called retail chains) are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardized business methods and practices. They are a type of business chain. Such stores may be branches owned by one company or franchises owned by local individuals or firms and operated under contract with the parent corporation. Features common to all chains are centralized marketing and purchasing, which often result in economies of scale, meaning lower costs and presumably higher profits.
The common types of chain stores are: the department store, discount store, warehouse club, catalogue store, mail order store, specialty store and drug store.
Retail trade is that part of commerce where goods are sold to the final consumer. The word retail is from the old French word retailer – to cut again. The retailer’s most important function is to buy in large quantities and to cut up into smaller ones. Even if there’s nothing to cut up literally, the retailer shall break bulk in other ways. In mass production factories turn out large quantities of products that they want to get rid of as soon as possible so as to clear production lines quickly and therefore they dispose of the goods to large-scale merchants called wholesalers. However, the bulk has to be broken down and the last link in the chain is the retailer.
The main functions of the retailer are:
To provide a local supply of goods
To break bulk
To serve the public personally
To prepare goods for resale
To arrange hire-purchase finance
To provide after-sale service
To act as a liaison between the consumer and the manufacturer.
The types of retailers are:
Chain stores (multiple shops)
Retail shops –small or large- may be owned by only one, or several persons (e.g. shareholders or members of a co-operative society).
Wholesalers handle goods in the intermediate position between producers and consumers. They get goods in large quantities from manufacturers or importers and sell them in bulk to retail traders while performing the functions of warehousing and transportation too. They may grant credit terms to retailers, enabling them to dispose of purchases before having to pay for them, thus the retailers can operate on a relatively small amount of capital.
The wholesaler, being in close touch with the market, can assist manufacturers by passing on information concerning demand and supply. By placing bulk orders in advance on demand from retailers, he enables the manufacturer to plan his output and set up a convenient working program.
The wholesalers’ functions are:
-To transport the goods from the point of production to the retailers’ shop
-To warehouse the goods
-To market the goods
-To grant credit to retailers with limited resources
-To act as liaison between retailers and producers
-To even out the flow of goods in times of glut and shortage.
The types of wholesalers are:
- traditional wholesalers (general/regional/local wholesalers
- cash and carry warehouses
- retailer-protection wholesalers
- mail order wholesalers