The original Manchester was an old town which has been inhabited since Roman times, when General Julius Agricola built a fort just north of the site of present day city. Though it was not until the 18th century that this little town sprang into the forefront of world attention, and not until the mid-19th century that it became a city.
During the Industrial Revolution Manchester became the hub of a wide network of innumerable townships which serviced its massive cotton industry. Surrounding towns sent their woven and spun produce to the Exchange in Manchester and from there to the world via the Manchester Ship Canal, and received raw materials which were distributed out from the city and its well established system of canals and railways.
The City of Manchester and innumerable small satellite towns and villages surrounding it saw the rapid growth of factories manufacturing merchandise for cotton weaving and spinning, dyeing, and all parts of the textile industry. Manchester was nicknamed "Cottonopolis" where 'King Cotton' ruled. It held onto its reputation as the prime source of world textiles until its decline in the 1950s, when cheaper foreign imports took over.
In the 1970s, Greater Manchester was born - a still controversial grouping of 8 towns and 2 cities. The county still produces more than half of Britain's manufactured goods and consumables. Greater Manchester is a big place. While 2.6 million people live within its actual boundaries, over 7 million others live in the wider region, making it second only to London in Great Britain. For 11 million people living within 50 miles of the City of Manchester, it is the place where they come to work, or to shop or to visit the many attractions and entertainments which only a large dynamic city such as this could hope to offer.
Budapest részei, felosztása
Budapest consists of Buda and Pest and the two parts of the city are separated by the river Danube. There are 23 districts in Budapest, out of which the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 12th and 22nd are situated on the Buda side with the other 17 districts remaining on the much bigger Pest side.
The area of the so-called inner city consists by and large of the 5th, 6th, 7th districts with overlapping parts of the 8th and 13th districts. These are densely populated, busy districts with lots of shops and thoroughfare. In this zone air pollution reaches critical levels, parking places are scarce and expensive, green surfaces have given place to what can be best described a proliferation of commercial and office buildings. By now there is an apparent tendency of outward migration by city-dwellers to the quieter outskirts and even beyond the city borders. Yet, masses of people invariably live in prefabricated concrete bloc of flats in the poorer districts of Pest.
Budapest látványosságai, nevezetességei
One of the tourist attractions of the city is the Castle district of Buda. Here, during the 18th century, well-to-do people built their miniature palaces. The first stop during a visit to the Castle district is usually at Matthias Church which was built in the 13th century in Gothic style. Behind the church is the Fishermen’s Bastion from which there is a magnificent view of the building of the Danube with the Houses of Parliament on the opposite bank. There you will also catch sight of the outstanding dome of St Stephen’s Cathedral. The beautiful panorama takes up the sleek and slender bridges that span the ‘blue’ Danube. The Royal Castle is to be found in the centre of the Castle district which houses the National Gallery and the National library as well. On the Pest side there are some great museums, the Hungarian National Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts. One of the much-frequented places in Pest is Heroes’ Square -built in 1896 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Hungary- just next to the lush green of the City Park. There can be seen the dignified statues of Hungarian kings and prominent men of state in a semi-circular array. Farther afield, behind the statues and beyond the lovely pond of the Skating Rink there is the Castle of Vajdahunyad, built in eclectic style.
The most popular and most beautiful parts of the immediate surroundings of Budapest are the little towns of Szentendre, Visegrád and Esztergom along the river Danube which can be conveniently approached by car, by coach or by boat. Szentendre, a little town some 25 km-s north of Budapest is the southern gate of the Danube Bend. This lovely place is full of artisans’ workshops, cafés, confectioneries and it boasts a famous open air folklore museum as well. Some 10 km-s further up to the north lies
Visegrád, the pearl of the Danube Bend. It features the royal castle that rides the hill-top and which was the seat of Hungarian kings for centuries. The history of Esztergom dates back to ancient times but it gained real importance in the tenth century during the reign of prince Géza, the father of Saint Stephen, the founder of the Hungarian state. Esztergom was the capital of the country until the Tartar invasion in 1241-42. The town has been the centre of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary and its gigantic Cathedral –the second largest in Hungary- is probably the most beautiful church of the country.